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Progesterone References

References for Progesterone:

PREGNANCY

BREAST CANCER

For those who wish to acquire an overview of the apoptosis matter that will be covered in the next issue, we recommend reading the article “To Die or Not to Die” in the January 28, 1998, issue of the JAMA.  (References are listed in order of list in article)

  1. Cowan LD, Gordis L, Tonascia JA, Jones GS. Breast cancer incidence in women with a history of progesterone deficiency. Am J Epidemiology 1981;114:209-217.
  2. Zava, David, Personal communication, as yet unpublished. Details coming in future issues.
  3. Hrushesky WJM. Breast cancer, the timing of surgery, and the menstrual cycle: Call for prospective trial. J Women’s Health 1996;5:555-566. Mohr PE, Wang DY, Gregory WM, Richards MA, Fentiman IS. Serum progesterone and prognosis in operable breast cancer. British J Cancer 1996;73:1552-1555.
  4. Chang K-J, Lee TTY, Linares-Cruz G, Fournier S, de Lignieres B. Influences of percutaneous administration of estradiol and progesterone on human breast epithelial cell cycle in vivo. Fertility and Sterility 1995;63:785-791.
  5. Cavalieri EL, Stack DE, Devanesan PD, Todorovic R, et al., Molecular origin of cancer: Catechol estrogen-3,4-quinones as endogenous tumor initiators. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 1997;94:10937-10942.
  6. Chang K-J, Lee TTY, Linares-Cruz G, Fournier S, de Lignieres B. Influences of percutaneous administration of estradiol and progesterone on human breast epithelial cell cycle in vivo. Fertility and Sterility 1995;63:785-791.
  7. Cowan LD, Gordis L, Tonascia JA, Jones GS. Breast cancer incidence in women with a history of progesterone deficiency. Am J Epidemiology 1981;114:209-217.
  8. Darcy KM, Shoemaker SF, Lee PH, Ganis BA, and Margot M. Hydrocortisone and progesterone regulation of the proliferation, morphogenesis, and functional differentiation of normal rat mammary epithelial cells in three-dimensional primary culture. J Cellular Physiology 1995;163:365-379.
  9. Formby B and Wiley TS. Progesterone inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells: Inverse effect on expression of p53 and Bcl-2. Sansum Medical Research Foundation, Santa Barbara, CA. Awaiting publication.
  10. Gompel A, Malet C, Spritzer P, La Lardrie J-P, et al. Progestin effect on cell proliferation and 17*-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in normal human breast cells in culture. J Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 1986;63:1174.
  11. Gompel A, Sabourin JC, Martin A, Yaneva H, et al. Bcl-2 expression in normal endometrium during the menstrual cycle. Am J Pathology 1994;144:1196-1202.
  12. Hrushesky WJM. Breast cancer, timing of surgery, and the menstrual cycle: Call for prospective trial. J Women’s Health 1996;5:555-566.
  13. Inoh A, Kamiya K, Fujii Y, and Yokoro K. Protective effects of progesterone and tamoxifen in estrogen-induced mammary carcinogenesis in ovariectomized W/Fu rats. Jpn J Cancer Res 1985; 76:699-704.
  14. Kandouz M, Siromachkova M, Jacob D, Marquet BC, et al. Antagonism between estradiol and progestin on Bcl-2 expression in breast cancer cells. Int. J. Cancer 1996;68:120-125.
  15. Leis HP. Endocrine prophylaxis of breast cancer with cyclic estrogen and progesterone. Inern Surg 1966;45:496-503.
  16. Mohr PE, Wang DY, Gregory WM, Richards MA, Fentiman IS. Serum progesterone and prognosis in operable breast cancer. British J Cancer 1996;73:1552-1555.
  17. Pujol P, Hilsenbeck SG, Chamness GC, and Elledge RM. Rising levels of estrogen receptor in breast cancer over 2 decades. Cancer 1994;74:1601-1606.
  18. Rodriquez C, Calle EE, Coates RJ, Miracle-McMahill HL, et al. Estrogen replacement therapy and fatal ovarian cancer. Am J Epidemiology 1995;141:828-835.
  19. Sabourin JC, Martin A, Baruch J, Truc JB, et al. Bcl-2 expression in normal breast tissue during the menstrual cycle. Int. J. Cancer 1994;59:1-6.
  20. Shi-Zhong Bu, De-Ling Yin, Xiu-Hai Ren, Li-Zhen Jiang, et al. Progesterone induces apoptosis and up-regulation of p53 expression in human ovarian carcinoma cell lines. Am Cancer Society 1997: pp 1944-1950.
  21. Weinberg RA. How cancer arises. Scientific American, September 1996; pgs 62-70.

HEART DISEASE

  1. Altura BM, Altura BT, “Magnesium and cardiovascular biology: An important link between cardiovascular risk factors and atherogenesis,” Cell Mol Biol Res 1995; 41(5):347- 59.
  2. The American Heart Association, “Cardiovascular Disease in Women: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals from the American Heart Association, and “Women, Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics,” www.americanheart.org
  3. Cerqueira MD, “Diagnostic testing strategies for coronary artery disease: special issues related to gender,” Am J Cardiol 1995;75:52D-60D.
  4. Douglas PS, et al, “The evaluation of chest pain in women,” N Engl J Med 1996;344:1311-1315.
  5. Fried LP, Kronmal RA, Newman AB, Bild DE, et al, “Risk factors for 5-year mortality in older adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study,” JAMA 1998;279:585-592.
  6. Gatto L, et al, “Ascorbic acid induces a favourable lipoprotein profile in women,” J Am Coll Nutr 1996; 15(2): 154-58.
  7. Kannel WB, “Natural history of angina pectoris in the Framingham Study: prognosis and survival. Am J Cardiol 1972;29:154-163.
  8. Kung S, et al, “Are there gender differences regarding coronary artery calcification?” Am J Cardiac Imag 1996;10:72-77.
  9. La Croix AZ, et al, “Health aging. A women’s issue,” West J Med 1997; 167(4):220-32.
  10. Lauer MS, et al, “Sex and Diagnostic Evaluation of Possible Coronary Artery Disease After Exercise Treadmill Testing at One Academic Teaching Center,” Am Heart J 1997;134(5):807-813.
  11. Matthews, K, et al, “Prior to use of estrogen replacement therapy, are users healthier than non-users?” Am J Epidemiol 1996; 143(10):971-8.
  12. Rosano GMC, Sarrel PM, Poole-Wilson PA, Collins P, “Beneficial effect of oestrogen on exercise-induced myocardial ischaemia in women with coronary artery disease,” Lancet 1993; 342:133-136.
  13. Sidney S, et al, “Myocardial Infarction and the Use of Estrogen and Estrogen-Progestogen in Postmenopausal Women,” Ann Int Med 1997; 127:501-508.
  14. Stephens N, Parsons A, et al, “Randomised controlled trial of Vitamin E in patients with coronary disease: Cambridge Heart Antioxidant Study (CHAOS),” Lancet 1996; 347:781- 86.
  15. Verhoef P, Stampfer M, et al, “Homocysteine metabolism and risk of myocardial infarction: Relation with Vitamins B6, B12 and folate,” Am J Epidemiol 1996;143;845-59.

PMS / PMDD

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3. Johnson S, McChesney C, Bean J. Epidemiology of premenstrual symptoms in a nonclinical sample. I. Prevalence, natural history and help-seeking behavior. J Reprod Med. 1988;33:340–6. [PubMed]
4. Meaden P, Hartlage S, Cook-Kerr J. Timing and severity of symptoms associated with the menstrual cycle in a community-based sample in the Midwestern United States. Psychiatry Res. 2005;134:27–36. [PubMed]
5. Wood C, Larsen L, Williams R. Menstrual characteristics of 2343 women attending the Shepherd Foundation. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 1979;19:107–10. [PubMed]
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9. American Psychiatric Association . Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th ed. APA; Washington, DC: 1994.
10. Yonkers KA, Halbreich U, Freeman E, et al. Symptomatic improvement of premenstrual dysphoric disorder with sertraline treatment. A randomized controlled trial. Sertraline Premenstrual Dysphoric Collaborative Study Group. JAMA. 1997;278:983–8. comment 1024–5. [PubMed]
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13. Borenstein J, Dean B, Endicott J, et al. Health and economic impact of the premenstrual syndrome. J Reprod Med. 2003;48:515–24. [PubMed]
14. Campbell EM, Peterkin D, O’Grady K, Sanson-Fisher R. Premenstrual symptoms in general practice patients. Prevalence and treatment. J Reprod Med. 1997;42:637–46. [PubMed]
15. Wittchen HU, Becker E, Lieb R, Krause P. Prevalence, incidence and stability of premenstrual dysphoric disorder in the community. Psychol Med. 2002;32:119–32. [PubMed]
16. Chaturvedi SK, Chandra PS, Gururaj G, Pandian RD, Beena MB. Suicidal ideas during premenstrual phase. J Affect Disord. 1995;34:193–9. [PubMed]
17. Stout AL, Steege JF, Blazer DG, George LK. Comparison of lifetime psychiatric diagnoses in premenstrual syndrome clinic and community samples. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1986;174:517–22. [PubMed]
18. Halbreich U, Borenstein J, Pearlstein T, Kahn L. The prevalence, impairment, impact, and burden of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMS/PMDD) Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2003;28(suppl 3):1–23. [PubMed]
19. Halbreich U, Backstrom T, Eriksson E, et al. Clinical diagnostic criteria for premenstrual syndrome and guidelines for their quantification for research studies. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2007;23:123–30. [PubMed]
20. Yonkers K, Steiner M. Depression in women. Dunitz; London: 1999.
21. Hurt SW, Schnurr PP, Severino SK, et al. Late luteal phase dysphoric disorder in 670 women evaluated for premenstrual complaints. Am J Psychiatry. 1992;149:525–30. [PubMed]
22. Di Giulio G, Reissing ED. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder: prevalence, diagnostic considerations, and controversies. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 2006;27:201–10. [PubMed]
23. ACOG Committee on Practice Bulletins—Gynecology ACOG Practice Bulletin. Premenstrual syndrome. Number 15, April 2000. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2001;73:183–91.
24. Ross LE, Steiner M. A biopsychosocial approach to premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2003;26:529–46. [PubMed]
25. Perkonigg A, Yonkers K, Pfiste H, Lieb R, Wittchen HU. Risk factors for premenstrual dysphoric disorder in a community sample of young women: the role of traumatic events and posttraumatic stress disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004;65:1314–22. [PubMed]
26. Girdler SS, Thompson KS, Light KC, Leserman J, Pedersen CA, Prange AJ., Jr. Historical sexual abuse and current thyroid axis profiles in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Psychosom Med. 2004;66:403–10. [PubMed]
27. Girdler SS, Klatzkin R. Neurosteroids in the context of stress: implications for depressive disorders. Pharmacol Ther. 2007;116:125–39. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
28. Bunevicius R, Hinderliter AL, Light KC, Leserman J, Pedersen CA, Girdler SS. Histories of sexual abuse are associated with differential effects of clonidine on autonomic function in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Biol Psychol. 2005;69:281–96. [PubMed]
29. Koci A, Strickland O. Relationship of adolescent physical and sexual abuse to perimenstrual symptoms (PMS) in adulthood. Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2007;28:75–87. [PubMed]
30. Endicott J, Nee J, Harrison W. Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP): reliability and validity. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2006;9:41. [PubMed]
31. Borenstein JE, Dean BB, Yonkers KA, Endicott J. Using the daily record of severity of problems as a screening instrument for premenstrual syndrome. Obstet Gynecol. 2007;109:1068–75. [PubMed]
32. Mortola JF, Girton L, Beck L, Yen SS. Diagnosis of premenstrual syndrome by a simple, prospective, and reliable instrument: the calendar of premenstrual experiences. Obstet Gynecol. 1990;76:302–7. [PubMed]
33. Moos RH. The development of a menstrual distress questionnaire. Psychosom Med. 1968;30:853–67. [PubMed]
34. Endicott J, Halbreich U. Retrospective report of premenstrual depressive changes. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1982;18:109–12.
35. Reid R. Premenstrual syndrome. Curr Probl Obstet Gynecol Fertil. 1985;8:1.
36. Yonkers KA, O’Brien PMS, Eriksson E. Premenstrual syndrome. Lancet. 2008;371:1200–10. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
37. Woods N, Most A, Dery G. Prevalence of perimenstrual symptoms. Am J Public Health. 1982;72:1257–64. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
38. Andersch B, Wendestam C, Hahn L, Ohman R. Premenstrual complaints. Prevalence of premenstrual symptoms in a Swedish urban population. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 1986;5:39–49.
39. Ramcharan S, Love EJ, Fick GH, Goldfien A. The epidemiology of premenstrual symptoms in a population based sample of 2650 urban women: attributable risk and risk factors. J Clin Epidemiol. 1992;45:377–81. [PubMed]
40. Rivera-Tovar AD, Frank E. Late luteal phase dysphoric disorder in young women. Am J Psychiatry. 1990;147:1634–6. [PubMed]
41. Soares CN, Cohen LS, Otto MW, Harlow BL. Characteristics of women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) who did or did not report history of depression: a preliminary report from the Harvard Study of Moods and Cycles. J Womens Health Gend Based Med. 2001;10:873–8. [PubMed]
42. Takeda T, Tasaka K, Sakata M, Murata Y. Prevalence of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder in Japanese women. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2006;9:209–12. [PubMed]
43. Pearlstein T, Yonkers K, Fayyad R, Gillespie J. Pretreatment pattern of symptom expression in premenstrual dsyphoric disorder. J Affect Disord. 2005;85:275–82. [PubMed]
44. Sternfeld B, Swindle R, Chawla A, Long S, Kennedy S. Severity of premenstrual symptoms in a health maintenance organization population. Obstet Gynecol. 2002;99:1014–24. [PubMed]
45. Bloch M, Schmidt P, Rubinow D. Premenstrual syndrome: evidence for symptom stability across cycles. Am J Psychiatry. 1997;154:1741–6. [PubMed]
46. Condon JT. The premenstrual syndrome: a twin study. Br J Psychiatry. 1993;162:481–6. [PubMed]
47. Kendler K, Karkowski L, Corey L, Neale M. Longitudinal population-based study of retrospectively reported premenstrual symptoms and lifetime major depression. Am J Psychiatry. 1998;155:1234–40. [PubMed]
48. Treloar S, Heath AM, Martin NG. Genetic and environmental influences on premenstrual symptoms in an Australian twin sample. Psychol Med. 2002;32:25–38. [PubMed]
49. Dhingra V, Magnay JL, O’Brien PM, Chapman G, Fryer AA, Ismail KM. Serotonin receptor 1A C(−1019)G polymorphism associated with premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Obstet Gynecol. 2007;110:788–92. [PubMed]
50. Huo L, Straub RE, Roca C, et al. Risk for premenstrual dysphoric disorder is associated with genetic variation in ESR1, the estrogen receptor alpha gene. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;62:925–33. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
51. Masho SW, Adera T, South-Paul J. Obesity as a risk factor for premenstrual syndrome. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 2005;26:33–9. [PubMed]
52. Nakamoto Y, Sato M, Miwa M, Murakami M, Yoshii M. Impaired reactivity to mental stress in premenstrual dysphoric disorder [PMDD] patients. Neurosci Res. 2007;58(suppl 1):S165.
53. Girdler SS, Leserman J, Bunevicius R, Klatzkin R, Pedersen CA, Light KC. Persistent alterations in biological profiles in women with abuse histories: influence of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Health Psychol. 2007;26:201–13. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
54. Rosseinsky D, Debonne lP. An evolutionary theory of premenstrual tension. Lancet. 1974;2:1024. [PubMed]
55. Castellanos F, Orihuela A, Galina CS. Aggressive behaviour in oestrus and dioestrus dairy cows and heifers. J Reprod Fertil. 1973;34:509–11. [PubMed]
56. Floody O, Pfaff D. Aggressive behaviour in female hamsters: the hormonal basis for fluctuations in female aggressiveness correlated with estrous state. J Comp Physiol Psychol. 1977;91:443–64. [PubMed]
57. Garcia-Castell E, Juarez Gonzalez J, Ervin F, Guzman-Flores C. Changes in the social dynamics associated to the menstrual cycle in the vervet monkey. Bol Estud Med Biol. 1989;37:11–6. [PubMed]
58. Rapkin A, Pollack D, Raleigh M, Stone B, McGuire MT. Menstrual cycle and social behavior in vervet monkeys. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1995;20:289–97. [PubMed]
59. Ho H, Olsson M, Westberg L, Melke J, Eriksson E. The serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine reduces sex steroid-related aggression in female rats: an animal model of premenstrual irritability? Neuropsychopharmacology. 2001;24:502–10. [PubMed]
60. Hyde J, Sawyer T. Estrous cycle fluctuations in aggressiveness of house mice. Horm Behav. 1977;9:290–5. [PubMed]
61. Schneider T, Popik P. Increased depressive-like traits in an animal model of premenstrual irritability. Horm Behav. 2007;51:142–8. [PubMed]
62. Marvan ML, Chavez-Chavez L, Santana S. Clomipramine modifies fluctuations of forced swimming immobility in different phases of the rat estrous cycle. Arch Med Res. 1996;27:83–6. [PubMed]
63. Beckley EH, Finn DA. Inhibition of progesterone metabolism mimics the effect of progesterone withdrawal on forced swim test immobility. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2007;87:412–9. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
64. MacDonald P, Dombroski R, Casey M. Recurrent secretion of progesterone in large amounts: an endocrine/metabolic disorder unique to young women? Endocr Rev. 1991;12:372–401. [PubMed]
65. Frank R. The hormonal causes of premenstrual tension. Arch Neurol Psychiatry. 1931;26:1053–7.
66. Hammarback S, Ekholm U-B, Backstrom T. Spontaneous anovulation causing disappearance of cyclical symptoms in women with the premenstrual syndrome. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 1991;125:132–7. [PubMed]
67. Casper R, Hearn M. The effect of hysterectomy and bilateral oophorectomy in women with severe premenstrual syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1990;162:105–9. [PubMed]
68. Casson P, Hahn P, Van Vugt D, Reid R. Lasting response to ovariectomy in severe intractable premenstrual syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1990;162:99–105. [PubMed]
69. Studd J, Panay N. Hormones and depression in women. Climacteric. 2004;7:338–46. [PubMed]
70. Studd J, Smith R. Estrogens and depression in women. Menopause. 1994;1:33–7.
71. Cronje WH, Vashisht A, Studd JWW. Hysterectomy and bilateral oophorectomy for severe premenstrual syndrome. Hum Reprod. 2004;19:2152–5. [PubMed]
72. Muse K, Cetel N, Futterman L, Yen S. The premenstrual syndrome: effects of “medical ovariectomy.” N Engl J Med. 1984;311:1345–9. [PubMed]
73. Bancroft J, Boyle H, Warner P, Fraser HM. The use of an LHRH agonist, buserelin, in the long-term management of premenstrual syndromes. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1987;27:171–82. [PubMed]
74. Hammarback S, Backstrom T. Induced anovulation as treatment of premenstrual tension syndrome. A double-blind crossover study with GnRH-agonist versus placebo. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1988;67:159–66. [PubMed]
75. Sundstrom I, Nyberg S, Bixo M, S H, Backstrom T. Treatment of premenstrual syndrome with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in a low dose regimen. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1999;78:891–9. [PubMed]
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77. Birzniece V, Backstrom T, Johansson IM, et al. Neuroactive steroid effects on cognitive functions with a focus on the serotonin and GABA systems. Brain Res Rev. 2006;51:212–39. [PubMed]
78. Smith S, Gong Q, Hsu F, Markowitz R, French-Mullen J, Li X. GABA A receptor alpha-4 subunit suppression prevents withdrawal properties of an endogenous steroid. Nature. 1998;392:926–30. [PubMed]
79. Smith S, Ruderman Y, Frye C, Homanics G, Yuan M. Steroid withdrawal in the mouse results in anxiogenic effects of 3alpha, 5beta-THP: a possible model of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2006;186:323–33. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
80. Sundstrom Poromaa I, Smith S, Gulinello M. GABA receptors, progesterone and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2003;6:23–41. [PubMed]
81. Griffiths J, Lovick T. Withdrawal from progesterone increases expression of alpha4, beta1, and delta GABA(A) receptor subunits in neurons in the periaqueductal gray matter in female Wistar rats. J Comp Neurol. 2005;486:89–97. [PubMed]
82. Backstrom T, Andersson A, Andree L, et al. Pathogenesis in menstrual cycle-linked CNS disorders. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003;1007:42–53. [PubMed]
83. Schmidt P, Nieman L, Danaceau M, Adams L, Rubinow D. Differential behavioral effects of gonadal steriods in women with and in those without premenstrual syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1998;338:209–16. [PubMed]
84. Wyatt K, Dimmock P, Jones P, Obhrai M, O’Brien S. Efficacy of progesterone and progestogens in management of premenstrual syndrome: systematic review. BMJ. 2001;323:776–80. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
85. van Wingen G, van Broekhoven F, Verkes R, et al. Progesterone selectively increases amygdala reactivity in women. Mol Psychiatry. 2008;13:325–33. [PubMed]
86. Magos A, Brewster E, Singh R, O’Dowd T, Brincat M, Studd J. The effects of norethisterone in postmenopausal women on oestrogen replacement therapy: a model for the premenstrual syndrome. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1986;93:1290–6. [PubMed]
87. Hammarback S, Backstrom T, Holst J, von Schoultz B, Lyrenas S. Cyclical mood changes as in the premenstrual tension syndrome during sequential estrogen-progestagen postmenopausal replacement therapy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1985;64:393–7. [PubMed]
88. Genazzani AR, Petraglia F, Bernardi F, et al. Circulating levels of allopregnanolone in humans: gender, age, and endocrine influences. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998;83:2099–103. [PubMed]
89. Bicikova M, Dibbelt L, Hill M, Hampl R, Starka L. Allopregnanolone in women with premenstrual syndrome. Horm Metab Res. 1998;30:227–30. [PubMed]
90. Rapkin A, Morgan M, Goldman L, Brann D, Simone D, Mahesh V. Progesterone metabolite allopregnanolone in women with premenstrual syndrome. Obstet Gynecol. 1997;90:709–14. [PubMed]
91. Schmidt P, Purdy R, Moore P, Paul S, Rubinow D. Circulating levels of anxiolytic steroids in the luteal phase in women with premenstrual syndrome and in control subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1994;79:1256–60. [PubMed]
92. Sundstrom I, Ashbrook D, Backstrom T. Reduced benzodiazepine sensitivity in patients with premenstrual syndrome: a pilot study. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1997;22:25–38. [PubMed]
93. Kaura V, Ingram CD, Gartside SE, Young AH, Judge SJ. The progesterone metabolite allopregnanolone potentiates GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibition of 5-HT neuronal activity. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2007;17:108–15. [PubMed]
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95. Thys-Jacobs S, McMahon D, Bilezikian JP. Differences in free estradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin in women with and without premenstrual dysphoric disorder. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:96–102. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
96. Schmidt P, Nieman L, Grover G, Muller K, Merriam G, Rubinow D. Lack of effect of induced menses on symptoms in women with premenstrual syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1991;324:1174–9. [PubMed]
97. Schmidt P. Depression, the perimenopause, and estrogen therapy. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1052:27–40. [PubMed]
98. Bjorn I, Sundstrom-Poromaa I, Bixo M, Nyberg S, Backstrom G, Backstrom T. Increase of estrogen dose deteriorates mood during progestin phase in sequential hormonal therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:2026–30. [PubMed]
99. Schmidt P, Grover G, Roy-Byrne P, Rubinow D. Thyroid function in women with premenstrual syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1993;76:671–4. [PubMed]
100. Girdler S, Pedersen C, Light K. Thyroid axis function during the menstral cycle in women with premenstrual syndrome. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1995;20:395–403. [PubMed]
101. Korzekwa MI, Lamont JA, Steiner M. Late luteal phase dysphoric disorder and the thyroid axis revisited. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996;81:2280–4. [PubMed]
102. Portella AT, Haaga DA, Rohan KJ. The association between seasonal and premenstrual symptoms is continuous and is not fully accounted for by depressive symptoms. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2006;194:833–7. [PubMed]
103. Dalgleish T, Rosen K, Marks M. Rhythm and blues: the theory and treatment of seasonal affective disorder. Br J Clin Psychol. 1996;35:163–82. [PubMed]
104. Parry BL, Berga SL, Kripke DF, et al. Altered waveform of plasma nocturnal melatonin secretion in premenstrual depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1990;47:1139–46. [PubMed]
105. Parry BL, Newton RP. Chronobiological basis of female-specific mood disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2001;25(5 suppl):S102–8. [PubMed]
106. Pehrsson M, Westberg L, Landén M, Ekman A. Stable serum levels of relaxin throughout the menstrual cycle: a preliminary comparison of women with premenstrual dysphoria and controls. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2007;10:147–53. [PubMed]
107. Thys-Jacobs S, McMahon D, Bilezikian JP. Cyclical changes in calcium metabolism across the menstrual cycle in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:2952–9. [PubMed]
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BONE DENSITY

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Progesterone is a hormone that occurs naturally in the body. It can also be made in a laboratory.

“Progestin” is a general term for a substance that causes some or all of the biologic effects of progesterone. The term “progestin” is sometimes used to refer to the progesterone made in the laboratory that is in oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy. However, all progesterone and progestin products are made in the laboratory. The term “natural progesterone” is really a misnomer. “Natural progesterones,” including the prescription products Crinone and Prometrium, are made from a chemical called diosgenin that is isolated from wild yam or soy. In the laboratory, this constituent is converted to pregnenolone and then to progesterone. The human body is not able to make progesterone from diosgenin, so eating wild yam or soy will not boost your progesterone levels.

Over-the-counter (OTC) progesterone products may not contain progesterone concentrations as labeled. According to a British report, two-ounce jars of Progest cream used in a clinical trial contained 100 mg progesterone per ounce rather than the 465 mg claimed by the manufacturer.

Topical progesterone products (preparations applied to the skin) marketed as cosmetics require no FDA approval prior to marketing. There is currently no limit on the amount of progesterone allowed in cosmetic products. In 1993 the FDA proposed a rule limiting progesterone-containing cosmetic products to a maximum level of 5 mg/oz with the product label instructing users not to exceed 2 oz per month. But this rule was never finalized.

Women take progesterone by mouth for inducing menstrual periods; and treating abnormal uterine bleeding associated with hormonal imbalance, and severe symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Progesterone is also used in combination with the hormone estrogen to “oppose estrogen” as part of hormone replacement therapy. If estrogen is given without progesterone, estrogen increases the risk of uterine cancer.

Progesterone is also used to ease withdrawal symptoms when certain drugs (benzodiazepines) are discontinued.

Progesterone cream is sometimes used in hormone replacement therapy and for treating menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes. Topical progesterone is also used for treating or preventing certain allergies in which hormones play a role; and for treating bloating, breast tenderness, decreased sex drive, depression, fatigue, lumpy (fibrocystic) breasts, headaches, low blood sugar, increased blood clotting, infertility, irritability, memory loss, miscarriages, brittle bones (osteoporosis), bone loss in younger women, symptoms of PMS, thyroid problems, “foggy thinking,” uterine cancer, uterine fibroids, water retention, weight gain, and vaginal irritation (vulval lichen sclerosis).

Progesterone gel is sometimes used inside the vagina to expand the cervix (cervical ripening), treat breast pain in women with noncancerous breast disease, and to prevent and treat abnormal thickening of the lining of the uterus (endometrial hyperplasia).

Progesterone is also used intravaginally or by injection for treating infertility and symptoms of (PMS).

How does it work?

Progesterone is a hormone released by the ovaries. Changing progesterone levels can contribute to abnormal menstrual periods and menopausal symptoms. Progesterone is also necessary for implantation of the fertilized egg in the uterus and for maintaining pregnancy.

Lab-made progesterone is used to imitate the functions of the progesterone released by the ovaries.

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